Головна The Emerald Handbook of Management and Organization Inquiry || Spirituality and Management Research...

The Emerald Handbook of Management and Organization Inquiry || Spirituality and Management Research and the Seven Ss

,
Наскільки Вам сподобалась ця книга?
Яка якість завантаженого файлу?
Скачайте книгу, щоб оцінити її якість
Яка якість скачаних файлів?
Том:
10.1108/97
Рік:
2019
Мова:
english
DOI:
10.1108/978-1-78714-551-120191006
Файл:
PDF, 130 KB
Завантажити (pdf, 130 KB)
Conversion to is in progress
Conversion to is failed
0 comments
 

Щоб залишити свій відгук, будь-ласка,увійдіть або зареєструйтесь
Ви можете залишити відгук про книгу и поділитись своїм досвідом. Іншим читачам буде цікаво дізнатись вашу думку про прочитані книги. Незалежно чи вам сподобалась книга чи ні, якщо ви відверто і детально розповісте про це, люди зможуть знайти для себя нові книги, які їх зацікавлять.
The Emerald Handbook of Management and Organization
Inquiry
Spirituality and Management Research and the Seven Ss
Jerry Biberman,

Downloaded by University Library At 21:26 03 July 2019 (PT)

Article information:
To cite this document: Jerry Biberman, "Spirituality and Management Research and
the Seven Ss" In The Emerald Handbook of Management and Organization Inquiry.
Published online: 20 May 2019; 77-87.
Permanent link to this document:
https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78714-551-120191006
Downloaded on: 03 July 2019, At: 21:26 (PT)
References: this document contains references to 0 other documents.
To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.com
The fulltext of this document has been downloaded 1 times since 2019*
Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by
emerald-srm:485088 []

For Authors
If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please
use our Emerald for Authors service information about how to choose which
publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit
www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information.

About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com
Emerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society.
The company manages a portfolio of more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books
and book series volumes, as well as providing an extensive range of online products
and additional customer resources and services.
Emerald is both COUNTER 4 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner
of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the
LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation.
*Related content and download information correct at time of download.

SPIRIT
SPIRITUALITY AND MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH AND THE SEVEN Ss
Jerry Biberman

Downloaded by University Library At 21:26 03 July 2019 (PT)

ABSTRACT
The general topic of spirituality and the ways in which spirituality in organizations was studied and reported on have re; ceived mixed reactions (ranging
from positive to puzzled to skeptical to negative) from sc’Moi participants,
many of whom were European critical management theorists, and management researchers in other divisions when the Management Spirituality and
Religion group was started at the Academy of Management. In this chapter
I examine how these management research differences in approaches to
ontology and epistemology were influenced by the philosophical approaches
of Hegel and Marx, and how similar differences also influenced psychological
research, whose approach to research and research methodology forms the
basis of much management research. I will examine how these contrasting
beliefs have played out and continue to play out in such seemingly diverse but
really similar subjects of inquiry as philosophy (e.g., Hegel vs Marx),
psychology (e.g., introspection vs behaviorism), and management studies
(e.g., management organization inquiry vs critical management). I examine
what these approaches have in common, how, in my opinion, the behaviorists
have so far prevailed, and why they have so far prevailed; I conclude with
suggestions for how ongoing dialectics between the seven Ss (the seven
themes elaborated on in this book
storytelling, system, sustainability,
science, spirit, spirals, and sociomateriality) can help contribute to the field
of spirituality in management, and how spirituality research can contribute
and interact with the other themes to the future of management and organizational inquiry.
Keywords: Spirituality; ontology; epistemology; Hegel; Marx;
introspection; behaviorism; storytelling

The Emerald Handbook of Management and Organization Inquiry, 77 87
Copyright r 2019 by Emerald Publishing Limited
All rights of reproduction in any form reserved
doi:10.1108/978-1-78714-551-120191006

77

78

JERRY BIBERMAN

When I first originated the Spirituality track at IABD and sc’Moi and helped to
originate its later incarnation as the Management Spirituality and Religion track at
the Academy of Management, I was interested in studying how a person’s own
personal experience of spirituality (e.g., spiritual experiences or practices a person
had, a person’s level of consciousness or experience of consciousness, “spiritual
awakening” or “aha experiences”) might influence how she or he behaved in a
management setting or how they influenced the way the person might structure or
manage an organization. This interest was sparked by my own personal spiritual
experiences.

Downloaded by University Library At 21:26 03 July 2019 (PT)

BIRTH OF THE IABD (LATER SC’MOI) SPIRITUALITY
TRACK
The Spirituality in Organizations track of the International Academy of
Business Disciplines (IABD), and later of sc’Moi, grew out of my personal
interests in and experiences with spirituality. I had been serving as proceedings co-editor and my colleague Len Tischler had been serving as the IABD’s
newsletter editor. We both had had a long previous interest in spirituality,
and both had been personally practicing meditation and other spiritual practices for over 20 years. We had both also been personal friends of the IABD’s
executive director (Abbass Alkhafaji, a devout Muslim) and had good working relations with the association’s officers, program directors, and other track
chairs.
With the permission of the program chair and the executive director, the
track was first included in the IABD’s 1997 conference call for papers. That
year, four papers and several workshops were presented at the annual conference in Orlando. The papers were also published in the IABD’s 1997 Business
Research Yearbook (Biberman & Alkhafaji, 1997). The Spirituality in
Organizations track was listed in the call for papers and included in the
Business Research Yearbook every year from 1997 until sc’Moi split off from
IABD. When sc’Moi split off to form a separate organization, I and the
Spirituality track moved over to sc’Moi.
Track sessions at each IABD conference were well attended and received.
Spirituality track presenters began to collaborate in writing and research
with other people who had presented at or attended the IABD and sc’Moi
spirituality in organizations track sessions. In addition, they contacted,
and began to collaborate with, other researchers whose names were mentioned by people at the track sessions. These collaborations led to journal
article submissions and workshop and paper presentations at other
conferences
most notably, at the Academy of Management. They led to
my co-founding the Management, Spirituality, and Religion interest group
at the Academy of Management (AoM) and serving as the editor of the
Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion for its first 10 years of
publication.

Spirituality and Management Research and the Seven Ss

79

Downloaded by University Library At 21:26 03 July 2019 (PT)

RECEPTION OF SPIRITUALITY AT SC’MOI SESSIONS
When we moved from IABD to sc’Moi, the general topic of spirituality
and the ways in which spirituality in organizations was studied and reported
on received mixed reactions (ranging from positive to puzzled to skeptical
to negative) from the other sc’Moi participants, many of whom were
European critical management theorists. This reception of spirituality foreshadowed the way in which the topic and research methodology was
also viewed by management researchers in other divisions when the
Management Spirituality and Religion group was started at the Academy of
Management.
In this chapter I examine how these management research differences in
approaches to ontology and epistemology were influenced by the philosophical
approaches of Hegel and Marx, and how similar differences also influenced psychological research, whose approach to research and research methodology forms
the basis of much management research. I examine how these contrasting beliefs
have played out and continue to play out in such seemingly diverse but really
similar subjects of inquiry as philosophy (e.g., Hegel vs Marx), psychology (e.g.,
introspection vs behaviorism), and management studies (e.g., management organization inquiry vs critical management). I also examine what these approaches have
in common, how, in my opinion, the behaviorists have so far prevailed, why they
have so far prevailed, and will conclude with suggestions for how ongoing dialectics between the seven Ss (the seven themes elaborated on in this book storytelling, system, sustainability, science, spirit, spirals, and sociomateriality) can help
contribute to the field of spirituality in management, and how spirituality research
can contribute and interact with the other themes to the future of Management
and Organizational Inquiry.

ONTOLOGY AND EPISTEMOLOGY
Throughout human history philosophers and scientists have been concerned
with and questioned the nature of “man” or humans. There has been a continuing tension between those who believe that humans are only what can be externally observed by their behaviors and those who believe that humans have a
rich inner life and are connected to something greater than themselves. These
differing beliefs have led to opposing ways of believing about the nature and
function of a human being and how one can examine or know about the nature
and function of a human being. Philosophers refer to these differing beliefs as
“ontology” (what we believe about the nature and function of a human being)
and “epistemology” (what we believe that counts for knowledge and evidence
i.e., methods of inquiry or research).

PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACHES (E.G., HEGEL VS MARX)
Human history can be thought of philosophically as a continuous swing back
and forth between extremes (dialectics) leading to eventual movement followed

Downloaded by University Library At 21:26 03 July 2019 (PT)

80

JERRY BIBERMAN

by more swings leading to some movement. Philosophers throughout history
have referred to these swings by different names and have developed different
ways of studying or conceiving of these swings. In this chapter, I contrast
Hegel’s approach to dialectics and the place of spirit in them with Marx’s
approach and show how these two approaches relate to the discussion and study
of spirituality in management inquiry.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel introduced a system for understanding the
history of philosophy and the world itself, often called a “dialectic”: a progression in which each successive movement emerges as a solution to the contradictions inherent in the preceding movement. Hegel considered the
dialectic to represent the manner in which the spirit (or, in German, geist)
develops gradually into its purest form, ultimately attaining unto its own
essential freedom. Geist is a German word which has all the meanings of the
English words spirit, mind, soul and the French word esprit. Hegel considered
geist to be a total reality that is an inherent unity of a mental or spiritual
nature, or spirit/mind together. Hegel considered world history to be the
unfolding of spirit in time.
Hegel described the role of geist in dialectics in several books. In Hegel’s
Science of Logic, Hegel said that the goal of spirit is freedom, which freedom needs to be expressed and reflected in order to be really free. He stated
further, however, the full meaning of freedom can be found out only
progressively, only in a process that becomes clearer in the life of the individual (subjective spirit) as well as for societies (ethical life) as they evolve
or develop, as well as for humanity in general (e.g., the progress of world
history and absolute spirit). For Hegel, a process of increasing freedom
already is in a dynamic sense the full actuality of freedom (Froeb,
2003 2005).
While some schools of thought influenced by Hegel tend to see history as
progressive, Hegel’s view was more that history was a possibly painfully
arrived at outcome of a dialectic in which factors working in opposite directions are over time reconciled. History was best seen as directed by a zeitgeist,
or Spirit of the Age, and traces of the zeitgest could be seen by looking
backward.
David Boje described the influence of spirit on Hegel’s dialectics as follows:
For Hegel Spirit is dialectical in relations to systems of knowledge quest to become science.
System and science are about abstraction, schemata purporting to displace experience, and yet
the experience of Spirit its manifestation in ethical substance, in action (enacted), is how the
abstract system/science gains existence in some meaningful way […] Hegel opens space in
management studies for spirit and how it manifests in organizing. Spirit is a process and can
begin with surface then moves into culture world then onto things. Hegel is telling of spirit in
world not hereafter. There are many spirits not all moving same directions. (D. M. Boje,
Personal Communication, July 20, 2016)

Hegel’s emphasis on the importance of the “zeitgeist” in interpreting and
determining behavior (ontology) opens up the argument for and the possibility
of studying and understanding human behavior by examining a person’s internal

Spirituality and Management Research and the Seven Ss

81

Downloaded by University Library At 21:26 03 July 2019 (PT)

personal experience
not just observable behaviors (epistemology) and for
using a variety of qualitative and creative research designs from a variety of
disciplines.
Karl Marx adapted Hegel’s dialectic away from being related to the unfolding of spirit and toward Marx’s own materialist conception of history, where
only the economic factors of human society and the associated social relations
would critically determine the unfolding of human history. In contrast to Hegel,
Marx argued for the importance of studying purely behaviors or behavioral outcomes, thus banishing the examination of spirit and all that that implies in terms
of studying spirit in its various dimensions. Boje described mainstream management organization’s inquiry (MOI) reaction to Marx and his influence as
follows:
Dialectics is defined here as the simple negativity of positive, the doubling of negative
with positive that sets up the opposition, the conflict, and the power diversity of MOI.
As Hegle (8071807: #18) puts it, “simple negativity” sets up a doubling, “and then again
the negation of this indifferent diversity and antithesis.” It is precisely this dialectic
that MOI lacks, has avoided, so as not to appear Marxist. I am Hegelian and not
Marxist, so MOI need have no worries on that score. Action is the process of its own
becoming, and only when MOI comes out of its one-sided positivity (be it positivism or
positive thinking) will a theory of action be possible in all its currents and countercurrents.
MOI’s horror about dialectics of action, it’s abhorrence of the negative has let a virus spread,
with many action results. It is the virus Savall and Zardet, and recently when book Amandine
co-authored, Agile^, points out, the self-moving selfsame nests, which is also the fractality that
Tonya Henderson and I have written about (Boje & Henderson, 2014; Henderson & Boje,
2016). This is the virus called Taylorism-Fayolism-Weberism (TFW virus as Savall and
Zardet) call it. It is the TKFW fractal as Henderson and I call it. Since MOI is so obsessed
with monotonous formalism, abstract one-liners, there is no actual study of the counterfractals, the counter-forces to the TFW viral fractal. Without studying the doubling process
the dialectics of self-moving action, there is only epidemic of MOI, unrestrained, without refutation. (Boje, 2016a, 2016b).

Marx’s influence and corresponding rejection of Hegel can be seen in the
reactions to the studying of spirituality in management of two groups of
researchers at sc’Moi (and also later at the Academy of Management):
(1) Traditional researchers who were heavily influenced by behavioral psychologists (as will be discussed in the next section), who rejected both the ontology
and epistemology of the examination of the influence of spirit in management
and organizations, viewing the examination of spirit and the study of spirit
using introspection and other non-behavioral methods (including various
kinds of “qualitative” as opposed to quantitative research) as unscientific or
“flaky.”
(2) Critical management theorists (particularly those at sc’Moi from
Europe) who considered spirituality or any technique influenced by spirituality as another possible way in which management could try to control workers.

82

JERRY BIBERMAN

Downloaded by University Library At 21:26 03 July 2019 (PT)

PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES (INTROSPECTION VS
BEHAVIORISM)
The field of psychology has had a heavy influence on management research
in terms of both ontology and epistemology. Similar to the differences
between followers of Hegel and Marx in philosophy, the main differences
in approach for psychologists have been between those psychologists such
as Maslow and William James who argued for the importance of internal
observation of one’s own personal experience and those psychologists
who argued for the importance of studying purely behaviors or behavioral
outcomes.
This emphasis on behavior as opposed to introspection is very much the
approach in psychology of Thorndike and BF Skinner and the other behaviorists, which, I believe, have largely influenced the research approach of most
psychologists (until very recently) and is behind the heavy emphasis on standard empirical research in management as advocated by most members and
most reviewers in the Academy of Management. The approach has even
largely influenced so-called qualitative research, which still has a mostly behavioral bent.

INFLUENCE ON MANAGEMENT THEORY AND
RESEARCH
As I described above, management theory and research methodology have
been largely influenced by the theories and techniques of the social
sciences particularly those of psychology. In both psychology and in management research we can see a similar type of dialectic as was described in
philosophy by Hegel and others
in this case, the dialectic swings between
emphasis on behavior versus emphasis on examination of internal states,
with the resolution being the development of “qualitative” research
approaches, which attempt to use the types of thinking behind quantitative
behavioral research (especially the emphasis on “rigor” in terms of data collection and analysis) to develop alternate non-behavioral more internal
research methodologies. Management philosophy and training have also
shown an ongoing dialectic swinging between concern for people and concern for production (e.g., theory x vs theory y and various similar iterations
over the years).
The recent interest in spirituality in management can be seen as a dialectical
reaction to the sterility of quantitative behavioral research, which some spirituality researchers argue does not examine internal states of consciousness or
reactions to spiritual practices and approaches. Traditional management
researchers whose training in research was heavily influenced by behavioral
psychologists rejected both the ontology and epistemology of the examination
of the influence of spirit in management and organizations. They were taught

Spirituality and Management Research and the Seven Ss

83

Downloaded by University Library At 21:26 03 July 2019 (PT)

to view the examination of spirit and the study of spirit using introspection
and other non-behavioral methods (including various kinds of “qualitative”
methods as opposed to quantitative research) as unscientific or “flaky.” In my
opinion, the behaviorists have so far prevailed, for reasons I will now
examine.
1. The preferences of reviewers for major management journals
Journal editors serve as the “gate keepers” for the types of manuscripts that get published in their journals. Even when journal submissions are “blind reviewed” the editor usually knows both the names of
the submitters and the names and preferences of the reviewers to whom a
manuscript is sent. In most cases, the editor makes the initial decision
(and so does the initial reading of a manuscript) as to even whether a
manuscript should be sent off for review or rejected without being
sent for review. If an editor has a bias for a certain type of research
methodology or a prejudice against a certain research subject, the editor
can either reject the manuscript before submitting it for review or send it
to reviewers who have similar biases to the editor. In this way, manuscripts using more creative types or less mainstream types of methodology may not even make it to the review stage or be given an unbiased
review.
2. The desire for spirituality researchers to be recognized (i.e., taken seriously
and not thought of as flaky or kooky) by mainstream management
researchers
Spirituality researchers, like all researchers, have the human tendency to
want to have their research be taken seriously by their colleagues in the management research academic area, and they find it difficult to hear their
research interests being attacked as “flaky” or “kooky” or not being taken
seriously as a serious field of inquiry by their colleagues. This becomes especially important when their work is being evaluated for tenure or promotion,
or as to whether it qualifies as counting toward being “academically qualified” for business school certification, as will be further explored in the next
sections.
One of the criteria for becoming a division in the AoM is that research
in the area be published in major AoM journals. If the editors of those
journals have a bias against the research topic or methodology, it becomes
difficult for the research to become accepted for publication in those
journals.
Another way in which a stream of research can be seen as mainstream is
whether it becomes included in syllabi of business school courses (or itself
becomes a separate course) and whether the topic is mentioned in business
course textbooks. Thus, for spirituality to be considered mainstream we
would expect to see it as a topic mentioned in a management or organization
behavior textbook or as part of a management or organization behavior

Downloaded by University Library At 21:26 03 July 2019 (PT)

84

JERRY BIBERMAN

course outline. While there are a small number of business schools that have
separate courses on spirituality, and several that include spirituality in their
management or organization behavior courses, I am not aware of any management or organization behavior textbooks that explicitly mention the topic
of spirituality or have a description of any spirituality researchers or their
research.
3. The increasing emphasis in business schools on the school receiving accreditation by such accrediting institutions as AACSB
Business school accrediting agencies such as AACSB have been placing
increasing emphasis on faculty publishing several articles each year in peerreviewed academic journals in order to remain “academically qualified.”
Many business schools rate the academic journals that they would prefer
their faculty to publish in on the “quality” of the journal, with quality usually being equated with the percentage of journal submissions that get
accepted for publication. “Top-tier” journals tend to have very low acceptance rates and emphasize traditional empirical management research
methodology.
4. The lack of support from academic institutions for spirituality research, with
many researchers believing they need to wait until they have tenure to begin
pursuing it
The emphasis on business school faculty to publish annually in top-tier
management publications in order for the business schools to receive and
maintain accreditation has contributed to researchers (especially younger
untenured faculty) being reticent to even attempt to do spirituality
research, at least until they have received tenure. Even after receiving tenure, they may find the number of publishing outlets for spirituality research
insufficient to maintain the required number of annual publications to
remain academically qualified. As more academic institutions are moving
away from granting tenure to instead only granting renewable teaching
contracts, the pressure to publish in mainstream publications on mainstream topics using traditionally accepted empirical research methodologies may make the ability to do research on spirituality in management
even more difficult.
5. The lack of good qualitative methods developed so far to study spirituality in
other than behavioral ways
For the reasons that I have detailed above, spirituality researchers
have yet to really develop or use any new or creative qualitative methods
to study spirituality. In other publications (e.g., Biberman, 2013, 2014)
I have suggested that researchers look at techniques that have been
developed and used in other related academic disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and anthropology to see if those techniques could be
adapted for use in spirituality in management research. Particularly
useful would be research methodology that could examine states of consciousness and other subjective psychological experiences as well as techniques involving introspection and self-reflection other than Likert scales on
surveys.

Spirituality and Management Research and the Seven Ss

85

Downloaded by University Library At 21:26 03 July 2019 (PT)

POSSIBLE INFLUENCE OF THE SEVEN SS ON
SPIRITUALITY RESEARCH AND HOW SPIRITUALITY
RESEARCH CAN INFLUENCE THE SEVEN SS AND THE
TRANSFORMATION OF MANAGEMENT AND
ORGANIZATIONAL INQUIRY
David Boje has identified seven themes (which he calls the seven Ss) as emerging
from the 25 years of discourse and debates at the Standing Conference for
Management and Organizational Inquiry (sc’Moi). These are the seven themes
that are elaborated on in this book. They are storytelling, system, sustainability,
science, spirit, spirals, and sociomateriality. Boje believes that the ongoing dialectics between these themes has made an important transition and transformation of Management and Organizational Inquiry. I will now identify ways in
which ongoing dialectics between each of the themes can help contribute to the
field of spirituality in management, and how spirituality research can contribute
with the other themes to the future of Management and Organizational Inquiry.
While spirituality was not involved with every sc’Moi conference, and while
I was not present at sc’Moi conferences where all of the seven themes were in
play, it seems to me that each of the seven themes and (as Boje describes in the
Preface) the myriad of ways in which the seven themes can interact have much
to contribute to each other and to the overall field of Management and
Organizational Inquiry. These possible contributions are many and include:
(1) The dialectics that emerge from discussions among proponents of each theme
As Boje says in the Preface to this book “during the 25 years of sc’Moi’s
existence I experienced their debates, their dance, and most of all their dialectic. This is not the dialectic ending in synthesis, rather an ongoing proliferation of counternarratives (negations of each negation), without End.
Each counternarrative holds concrete ground in the characters attending
sc’Moi, who stand their ground.”
Discussions among the presenters, especially those arguing for and presenting from differing points of view, can lead to new syntheses among the
approaches. As an example of this, critical management theorists (particularly those at sc’Moi from Europe) who considered spirituality or any technique influenced by spirituality as another possible way in which
management could try to control workers got to challenge these critical positions by seeing other more positive ways in which spirituality could influence
management practice and research.
(2) The research methodology that proponents of each theme have developed and
presented at sc’Moi conferences
Presenters at sc’Moi conferences have described a variety of different and
interesting research methodologies derived from a number of academic disciplines other than psychology (most notably to me being philosophy, literature,
and drama) and have presented their research ideas and findings in a variety of
non-traditional (at least if compared to an AoM conference) ways. The

Downloaded by University Library At 21:26 03 July 2019 (PT)

86

JERRY BIBERMAN

ongoing dialectics between proponents of each theme can lead to the emergence of new and unusual research questions and ways of answering these
questions.
(3) The ways in which proponents of each theme have written about these themes
and the written papers and books emerging from the dialectics among the
themes could potentially influence the broader academic field of management
research
It seems like almost every year at the AoM conference the outgoing
president gives a presidential address in which she or he asks how the
research presented at AoM meetings and published in AoM journals can
have more of an impact on actual managers and organizations. It seems
that most managers do not read academic journals containing sophisticated statistical analysis of empirical research. And yet, it is this type of
research in an academic journal that has a very low acceptance of submissions rate (as described above) that is currently most valued by management departments in universities and their accrediting agencies (such as
AACSB). I believe that as the dialectics that emerge between the seven
themes find outlets in books (as opposed to academic journal articles) such
as the current one and other publishing and information dissemination outlets, universities and accrediting agencies will become more accepting of
these more “non-traditional” or “non-academic” other publishing and
information dissemination outlets for tenure and promotion and academic
qualification accreditation.
(4) The ways in which proponents of each theme and the themes emerging from
the dialectics among the themes could potentially influence the actual structure, management, and leadership of organizations
I believe that as the dialectics that emerge between the seven themes find
outlets in books (as opposed to academic journal articles) such as the current
one and other publishing and information dissemination outlets, managers
and organization leaders will begin to pay more attention to the content of
what emerges from the interactions and syntheses of these themes. This will
be especially true if the way in which the material discussed and the ways in
which it is presented appear to be more meaningful and to have personal
applicability and meaning to the manager or leader who is reading or
exposed to the material. This is an area in which themes and approaches
such as spirituality and storytelling can be most useful and applicable in
potentially influencing the actual structure, management, and leadership of
organizations.

REFERENCES
Biberman, J. (2013). Quo vadis: Where are we and where are we going? In J. Neal (Ed.), Handbook
of faith and spirituality in the workplace: Emerging research and practice (pp. 713 716).
New York, NY: Springer.
Biberman, J. (2014). Spirituality in organizations: Parallels with spirituality in other disciplines
Toward a coherent theory. In E. Hense, F. Jespers, & P. Nissen (Eds.), Present day spiritualities: Contrasts and overlaps (pp. 103 112). Lieden: Brill.

Spirituality and Management Research and the Seven Ss

87

Downloaded by University Library At 21:26 03 July 2019 (PT)

Biberman, J., & Alkhafaji, A. (Eds.). (1997). Business research yearbook: Global business perspectives. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International Conference of the International Academy
of Business Disciplines, Volume 4. (Orlando, Florida, April 10 13, 1997). Slippery Rock, PA:
International Academy of Business Disciplines.
Boje, D. M. (2016a, June 21). Spirit and science of management and organization inquiry [Web log
message]. Antenarrative Blog.
Boje, D. M. (2016b, June 22). What is triadic dialectic for management and organization inquiry
[Web log message]. Antenarrative Blog.
Boje, D. M., & Henderson, T. L. (Eds.). (2014). Being quantum: Ontological storytelling in the age of
antenarrative. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Froeb, K. (2003 2005). Philosophy of spirit/mind (geist). Retrieved from http://www.hegel.net/en/
spirit.htm
Henderson, T. L., & Boje, D. M. (2016). Organizational development and change theory: Managing
fractal organizing processes. London: Routledge.